The only thing constant in life is change.’ Over time the pattern of the exams changes, method of answering changes. In fact, even understanding of the subject changes. These are all covered in the 2 nd edition of this book. It is not possible to include all aspects of this subject in this volume. Nevertheless, in its capacity this book will successfully guide all undergraduate medical students and also ophthalmology resident doctors to understand ophthalmology better and be successful at exams. As in the previous edition answers are incorporated to almost all questions that have been asked in ophthalmology university papers to date. As the common entrance exams (CET et al.) are the only way of seeking PG seats the information on certain topics are expanded, added few more topics and introduced some Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) at the end of each chapter. Those ophthalmic conditions which are common and are more frequently asked in exams are in larger font as against relatively rare diseases, which are in smaller font. The basic strength of this book i.e. easily reproducible line diagrams, flowcharts and highlighted keywords have been revised (more than 100 new diagrams have been added).